Introduction to hurricanes
- The year 2021 brought upon many cyclones and hurricanes in India which provided us with the scenario undergone by the cyclone-prone areas. There are various children’s stories of how a woman got swooped away by the hurricane or how a cyclone took the girl to a different wonderworld.
Hurricanes forming in the sea.
- But the matter of fact is that hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are all tropical storms. Their names differ with their place of origin. a unique place of inception, a special name is assigned by the scientists.
- In layman’s terms, we just connect hurricanes with strong swirling winds, damaging everything that comes across its path. But, most people are unaware of the reality of hurricanes or cyclones, which today allows us to require you thru the ‘eye of the cyclone’ and acknowledge its ferocity.
What is a Hurricane?
- Hurricane could be a tropical storm that’s a quick rotating storm network with a low-pressure centre, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a volute arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rains.
- They originate within the Atlantic Ocean or the northeast Pacific Ocean with their speeds starting from 100- 300 kph.
- The tropical winds occurring within the northwestern Pacific are called typhoons; within the ocean, Pacific, or Atlantic, comparable storms are named simply ‘tropical cyclones’.
- Hurricane refers to the winds that move in an exceedingly circular path, swirling around their centre referred to as the ‘eye’. The winds blow counterclockwise within the hemisphere while clockwise within the hemisphere, because of the effect.
- The occurrence of hurricanes is usually over large water bodies having considerably warm waters, deriving their energy from the evaporating water. Thus they lose their vigour when near land.
- The strong rotating winds are caused by the Earth’s rotation leading to the conservation of momentum thanks to the airflow inwards towards the axis of rotation.
What is a Cyclone?
A cyclone is a broad term used for a weather system in which winds rotate inwardly to an area of low atmospheric pressure. Tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones and tornadoes are the different types of cyclones.
A historical review
- Before imaging through satellites became available during the 20th century, many of those cyclone systems went undetected unless they affected land or a ship encountered it inadvertently.
- The historical paper on the occurrence of hurricanes dates back to around 6000 BC. The earliest recorded cyclones occurred in Western Australia.
- Currently, there are on average around 100 named hurricanes, cyclones, or typhoons Globally.
How are Hurricanes formed?
The various factors chargeable for the formation and occurrence of tropical cyclones are discussed as follows:
- Sea surface temperatures of around 21°C (81°F)
- Low vertical wind shear around the system
- High humidity within the lower and middle levels of the troposphere
- Coriolis effect present enough to develop a low-pressure centre
- Atmospheric instability
- Pre-existence of a low-level disturbance
- The eye of the cyclone is the centre where the air sinks suppressing cloud formation.
- A hurricane is occurred when a storm’s maximum sustained winds reach 74 mph. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane scale of measurement could be a 1 to five rating, or category, supported by a hurricane’s maximum sustained winds.
Traverse of a Hurricane
- The travelling journey of a hurricane involves lots of changes in its character, strength, and effects it brings alongside. The movement of a tropical cyclone is often approximated because of the sum of two terms:
- ‘Steering’– Environmental steering is the dominant influence on the motion of hurricanes. It exemplifies the movement of the storm thanks to persisting winds and other wider environmental circumstances.
- Beta drift- A tropical cyclone or hurricane tends to drift poleward and westward thanks to the force.
Consequences of Hurricane
Hurricanes are notoriously infamous for bringing huge destruction, damage, fatalities, and obstruction. the various damages and effects of hurricanes are listed below:
- They cause heavy rainfall.
- Floods and large sea waves occur
- High accelerating winds disrupt International shipping and boats.
- They cause shipwrecks and damage to harbours.
- Uproot trees, electricity poles, and other skyscrapers.
- Contaminate oceans and cause oil spills.
- They may cause landslides.
Thus hurricanes are a natural disaster, a never welcomed guest.
Deadliest hurricanes around the world
There are many deadly hurricanes globally. a number of the foremost ones are :
- The Great Hurricane of 1780
- The Great Hurricane of 1780 blasted its way through the Caribbean, killing approximately 22,000 people.
2. Hurricane Mitch
- The storm bombarded several Caribbean islands, including Barbados, Martinique, and St. Lucia over six days in October.
- It is considered the deadliest hurricane of all time.
- Mitch didn’t garner much attention from the U.S. but the death and devastation this hurricane caused exceeded the number of history’s better-known storms, in 1998.
- With approximately 11,000 people dead, Mitch is the second-deadliest hurricane in 200 years.
3. Galveston Hurricane
- The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 killed approximately 6,000 to 12,000 people, mostly in Texas, in September 1900 and is taken into account the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history.
It was a Category 4 storm pounding Oklahoma and Kansas even.
4. Hurricane Katrina
- In 2005 hurricane Katrina hit the city, of LA. it was a Category 5 hurricane.
- Hurricane Katrina claimed 1,833 lives and at $161 billion it took into account the most costly hurricane in U.S. history. The Management Agency called it “the single most catastrophic natural disaster in U.S. history.”
- India isn’t untouched by these tropical storms. a number of the foremost hits of hurricanes in India are listed out below:
5. 1970 Cyclone
- This season brought seven cyclones forming with two making landfall over India.
It affected Odisha, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
6. Cyclone Oil
- A severe Cyclonic Storm brought heavy rainfall over Kerala, Karnataka, and Goa which later became the primary cyclone to directly threaten Kerala.
It occurred within the year 2004 affecting South India, Gujarat, and Pakistan
7. Cyclone Rashmi and Nisha
- These occurred in 2008 affecting India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh.
- Cyclone Fani
It was a very severe cyclonic storm in 2019.
- 8. Cyclone Amphan of 2020 was the most costly tropical cyclone that hit the state of Odisha and the province.
- Recently within the year 2021, India faced a series of cyclones that had their effect even within the plain areas of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, etc.
Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Tauktae caused heavy rainfall and high gust winds in South India, Gujarat, Goa, and Maharashtra.
Cyclone Yaas, Cyclone Gulab were also witnessed by the states of Odisha, Maharashtra, and South India
How to survive a hurricane?
There’s a 3 step process for surviving a hurricane situation. These are briefly explained here:
- Before a hurricane
- Have a disaster plan.
- Bring in outdoor objects that would blow away.
- Know all the evacuation routes.
- Prepare a disaster supplies kit for your home and car.
- Have enough food and water for a minimum of 3 days.
- Include a primary aid kit, tinned goods and a tin opener, drinking water, battery-operated radio, flashlight, protective clothing, and written instructions on a way to shut down electricity, gas, and water.
- Have some cash handy.
- During a hurricane
- Stay away from low-lying and flood-prone areas.
- Always stay indoors during a hurricane, because strong winds will blow things around.
- If your home isn’t on higher ground, move to a shelter.
- If emergency managers tell them to evacuate, then do so immediately.
- After a hurricane
- Stay indoors until safe to return out.
- Help others, without putting yourself at risk.
- Watch out for flooding which might happen after a hurricane.
- Do not try to drive in flooding water.
- Stay away from standing water. it’s going to be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.
- Don’t drink water until officials say it’s safe to try to do so.
These were the step by step instructions for a secure and sound survival in a very hurricane
Reaching the end…
- Hurricanes or any natural disasters are unavoidable, but we as humans have well adapted in touch the brunt of nature. Hurricanes are natural occurrences that will just be faced and endured. An absolute solution is impossible.
- Building back better means specializing in recovery that not only restores damage from a disaster but also reduces future risk.
- to satisfy that goal today, we want to appear at the ways our disaster preparedness and response systems create risk themselves by reinforcing things like wealth inequality, systemic discrimination, or access to crucial services.
- In the end, I’d similar to quote the words of Janet Wong, whose words describe a hurricane aptly because it is:-
- “The weather reporter says it’d be a very bad hurricane, Category 3.
- Her words are jumbling up during a ball: storm surge, flood watch, winds, eyewall, low, cyclone, large heat engine.
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