Erakina

Forms of matter – Erakina

Published Date : June 15, 2022

Understanding the particle nature of matter is critical. Atoms and molecules are not “tiny bits of solid” or “little drops of liquid,” but the particles that make up matter. Its state is determined by the physical features of those atoms and molecules.Each of these three classical forms of matter has the ability to shift into the other two classical forms. If energy is provided or taken away, elements and compounds can shift from one phase to another. The condition of matter can vary when the temperature changes.

Forms of matter

The matter is made up of extremely microscopic particles that we cannot see with our naked eyes. It has been revealed that matter can take many different forms in nature. Some things, such as wood and stone, are stiff and have a fixed shape; others, such as water, can flow and take the shape of their container; and air, on the other hand, has no defined shape or size.

The physical qualities of matter and the forms in which they exist can be categorised into several categories, which are referred to as forms of matter.

Different forms of matter

The three basic forms of matter are as follows:

Solid

  • The constituent particles of a solid are tightly packed. Compressing the particles is difficult due to the narrow spaces between them.
  • As the  forces between particles are so strong, they can only vibrate instead of moving freely.
  • A solid has a consistent, defined shape and volume.
  • Solids can only change shape due to an external force, such as when they are fractured or chopped.
  • Particles have a strong attraction to one another.
  • Diffusion in solids is extremely slow.
  • Solids include things like solid ice, sugar, rock, and wood.
  • The transformations of a solid into a liquid and of a liquid into a solid are both feasible. Sublimation is the process of converting a solid into a gas.

Liquid 

  • As opposed to solids, particles in a liquid form of matter are less closely packed.
  • Liquid assumes the shape of the container in which it is kept.
  • Liquids are difficult to compress because the space between the particles is limited.
  • The volume of a liquid is constant, but its shape is not.
  •  Diffusion occurs faster in liquids than in solids.
  • Particle-particle attraction is weaker than solid-solid attraction.
  • Water, milk, blood, coffee, and other liquid forms of matter are examples.
  • By heating a liquid to its boiling point under steady pressure, it can be converted to a gas. Evaporation is the transformation of a liquid into a gas.

Forms of matter

Gas

  • Gases have a considerable gap between particles.
  • There is no attraction between the particles, so they can move about freely.
  • They are not defined by their volume or shape.
  • In comparison to solids and liquids, the gaseous form has the highest compressibility.
  • In gases, diffusion is faster than in solids and liquids.
  • Particles have higher kinetic energy than solids and liquids. 
  • Air, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, and other gases are examples of gases.
  • Condensation is the process by which gas particles transform into liquid. When gaseous molecules are cooled, they recombine to produce liquid molecules.

Apart from the three forms stated above, there are two more forms that we do not see in our daily lives, which are as follows: 

Plasma 

Forms of matter

  • Plasma is similar to a gas as it has no definite structure or volume.
  • Positively charged nuclei float in a “sea” of freely moving disassociated electrons.
  • Plasma is made up of particles that have high kinetic energy.
  • Ionizing noble gases with electricity produce luminous indications, which are essentially plasma. 
  • The corona of the Sun, some type of flame, and stars are all instances of plasma-state luminous matter.

Bose Einstein Condensates

  • Bose Einstein Condensates were discovered in 1995 as a result of technological developments. 
  • Carl Weiman and Eric Cornell used magnets and lasers to chill a sample of rubidium to within a few degrees of absolute zero.
  • The molecules’ mobility is insignificant at the specified temperature.
  • As the kinetic energy of the atoms decreases, they no longer remain separate and begin to cluster together. As the atoms come together, a super-atom is formed.
  • Light slows down when it passes through a BEC, allowing scientists to understand more about the light’s nature as a wave and particle. BECs also have superfluid characteristics, which means they flow without friction. 

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