Organisms Engineered in Laboratory: The Generically Modified Organisms – Erakina

Cloning using modern techniques Genetically modified organisms

Cloning Genetically modified organisms

Cloning [Genetically modified organisms] is a technique scientists use to make exact genetic copies of living things. Genes, cells, tissues, and even whole animals can all be cloned. Cloning, the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens often in nature—for example, when a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. Prokaryotic organisms (organisms lacking a cell nucleus) such as bacteria create genetically identical duplicates of themselves using binary fission or budding.[Genetically modified organisms ] In eukaryotic organisms (organisms possessing a cell nucleus) such as humans, all the cells that undergo mitosis, such as skin cells and cells lining the gastrointestinal tract, are clones; the only exceptions are gametes (eggs and sperm), which undergo meiosis and genetic recombination. In biomedical research, cloning is broadly defined to mean the duplication of any kind of biological material for scientific study, such as a piece of DNA or an individual cell. For example, segments of DNA are replicated exponentially by a process known as polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, a technique that is used widely in basic biological research.[Genetically modified organisms ]The type of cloning that is the focus of much ethical controversy involves the generation of cloned embryos, particularly those of humans, which are genetically identical to the organisms from which they are derived, and the subsequent use of these embryos for research, therapeutic, or reproductive purposes.[Genetically modified organisms ] Some clones already exist in nature. Single-celled organisms like bacteria make exact copies of themselves each time they reproduce. In humans, identical twins are similar to clones. They share almost the exact same genes. Identical twins are created when a fertilized egg splits in two. Scientists also make clones in the lab. They often clone genes in order to study and better understand them. To clone a gene, researchers take DNA from a living creature and insert it into a carrier like bacteria or yeast. Every time that carrier reproduces, a new copy of the gene is made.[Genetically modified organisms ]

Cloning using reproductive method

Cloning Problems

What are the risks of cloning? One of the main concerns as it relates to human cloning is that the current processes used in animal cloning are only successful a very small percentage of the time.[Genetically modified organisms ] Another concern is that the cloned animals that do survive tend to have various health problems and shorter lifespans. Scientists have not yet figured out why these problems occur and there is no reason to think that these same problems wouldn't happen in human cloning.[Genetically modified organisms ]

Ways Of Cloning

  • Reproductive cloning

Reproductive cloning involves the implantation of a cloned embryo into a real or an artificial uterus.[Genetically modified organisms ] The embryo develops into a foetus that is then carried to term. Reproductive cloning experiments were performed for more than 40 years through the process of embryo splitting, in which a single early-stage two-cell embryo is manually divided into two individual cells and then grows as two identical embryos. Reproductive cloning techniques underwent significant change in the 1990s, following the birth of Dolly, who was generated through the process of SCNT.[Genetically modified organisms ] This process entails the removal of the entire nucleus from a somatic (body) cell of an organism, followed by insertion of the nucleus into an egg cell that has had its own nucleus removed (enucleation). Once the somatic nucleus is inside the egg,

the egg is stimulated with a mild electrical current and begins dividing. Thus, a cloned embryo, essentially an embryo of an identical twin of the original organism, is created. The SCNT process has undergone significant refinement since the 1990s, and procedures have been developed to prevent damage to eggs during nuclear extraction and somatic cell nuclear insertion.[Genetically modified organisms ] For example, the use of polarized light to visualize an egg cell’s nucleus facilitates the extraction of the nucleus from the egg, resulting in a healthy, viable egg and thereby increasing the success rate of SCNT.

Internal links:

Cloning to agar – Erakina

What is Recombinant DNA Technology: Future is here. – Erakina

Do you know?Who performed cloning technology for the first time?-Erakina

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Read more about clone genetically modified organism

  • Therapeutic Cloning

Genetic Engineering

GMO refers to adding, removing or changing their DNA sequences in a way that are not natural

Therapeutic cloning is intended to use cloned embryos for the purpose of extracting stem cells from them, without ever implanting the embryos in a womb.[Genetically modified organisms ] Therapeutic cloning enables the cultivation of stem cells that are genetically identical to a patient. The stem cells could be stimulated to differentiate into any of the more than 200 cell types in the human body. The differentiated cells then could be transplanted into the patient to replace diseased or damaged cells without the risk of rejection by the immune system. These cells could be used to treat a variety of conditions, including Alzheimer diseaseParkinson diseasediabetes mellitusstroke, and spinal cord injury. In addition, stem cells could be used for in vitro (laboratory) studies of normal and abnormal embryo development or for testing drugs to see if they are toxic or cause birth defects.[Genetically modified organisms ]

By :- Sanjana Pal

Date: 12/ 22/ 2021

Tags: Microbes, Organism

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