Lactobacillus xujianguonis belong to the Lactobacillus genus, commonly known as probiotic bacteria found in the animal body.
Lactobacillus are bacteria species found inside the body of animals, fish, and in plant habitats. As of 2019, around 219 species of lactobacillus have been discovered from different organisms. Lactobacillus xujianguonis species have been found in the gastrointestinal tract of Marmota himalayana (Himalayan marmot) found in the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. Marmot is rodent-like species found in the habitats of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau present in the grassland areas. The role of Lactobacillus xujianguonis is to produce lactic acid in the species of marmot. Lactic acid is a biochemical produced in the muscles and the red blood cells. The lactic acid is produced when the carbohydrates are broken down to convert into energy when oxygen levels are low in the muscle tissues. Lactic acid is produced from varieties of glucose byproducts, such as D-fructose, D-ribose, sucrose, etc.
Lactobacillus xujianguonis species are rod-shaped, non-motile, gram-positive, and not-spore forming bacteria. This bacteria does not contain the catalase enzyme required to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxygen and water. Hence, they grow in anaerobic environments; however, they require lower oxygen levels; therefore, they are a microaerophile. The byproduct of fermentation by Lactobacillus xujianguonis produces lactic acid, a single substance; hence, this bacteria is homofermentative.
Lactobacillus xujianguonis bacteria species is isolated from Marmota Himalayan’s feces found in the province of China in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For two days, the Lactobacillus xujianguonis is cultured in anaerobic environments at around 37°C. The culture is visualised as white irregular circle-shaped bacterial colonies. In the laboratory, the optimal conditions for the growth of this bacteria are between 37-40°C with a pH of 6.5-7.5. The cell wall of the Lactobacillus xujianguonis is composed of alanine, lysine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid. These bacterial cells produce increased D-lactic acid compared to L-lactic acid.
Lactobacillus species are considered good bacteria in any organism. These genera of bacteria are known for their probiotic nature as they produce lactic acid as a byproduct after utilising the carbohydrates obtained from the surrounding environments. The gastrointestinal tract of every organism has different species of lactobacillus bacteria. One such bacteria is Lactobacillus xujianguonis, found in the gastrointestinal tract of Himalayan marmot. These bacteria were first isolated from the feces of this rodent. Lactobacillus xujianguonis is a probiotic bacteria for this animal responsible for protecting the walls of the gastrointestinal tract from any bad bacteria or harmful pathogens.
As Lactobacillus xujianguonis bacteria is considered a probiotic bacteria in the Himalayan marmot species, the role of this bacteria also includes resisting the gastrointestinal tract against foodborne pathogens. This causes a decrease in the number of pathogens and other opportunistic microbes inside the tract. Protecting the gastrointestinal wall of the Himalayan marmot, Lactobacillus xujianguonis also plays an essential role in expressing different immunological and biochemical effects in this animal. Therefore, this bacteria aids in regulating immunity and improving the availability of nutrients. The pathogens affect the gastrointestinal tract by damaging the walls of the tract and thus leading to a decrease in the absorption of nutrients. Once the Lactobacillus xujianguonis protects the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, these pathogens cannot damage the tract. Therefore, it increases the absorption rate of nutrients by the mucosa, which is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. This mucosa is made up of epithelial cells responsible for absorbing nutrients into the system.
Lactobacillus xujianguonis bacteria present in the Himalayan marmot has similar functions to that of the most genus of Lactobacillus, which is to protect the gastrointestinal tract from harmful pathogens, improve the immunity, increase the absorption of nutrients, and produce energy by releasing lactic acid as a byproduct from bacteria. Hence, Lactobacillus xujianguonis acts as a probiotic bacteria.