Various sources of probiotics
Lilly and Stillwell used the word “probiotic” in 1965 to describe chemicals generated by one organism that encourage the development of another. The name “probiotics” is derived from a Greek phrase that means “for life”. Probiotics were described by an expert panel commissioned by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) and WHO as “living microorganisms” that, when provided in suitable proportions, impart a health benefit to the host. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus, and Streptococcus are the most prevalent bacterial genera utilized in probiotic formulations. Some Saccharomyces fungal strains have also been used. [Table 1].
Table 1: List of microorganisms used as Probiotics
L. casei (rhamnosus)
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was the first probiotic to attract significant clinical attention. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG was found in 1985 by compiling a list of optimal attributes for probiotics after the Lactobacillus strain used historically for fermentation by the dairy industry was unable to implant the gut. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been shown to improve gut immunity. It increases the amount of IgA and other immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa, induces local interferon release, and improves antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, all of which contribute to increased antigen absorption in Peyer’s patches.
Fermented foods, best source of probiotics
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients that benefit the host by selectively increasing the development and/or activity of one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon, hence improving the host’s health. Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that escape digestion in the upper gastrointestinal system and change the bacterial makeup of the gut by modifying the kind of substrate offered to the gut’s existing microbial population, such as fructooligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharides, and inulin. Synbiotics, which combine probiotics and prebiotics, enhance the survival of bacteria in the GI tract, making their impact more potent.
Sources of probiotics
Properties of probiotics
The following characteristics should be included in an optimum probiotic formulation [Table 2]. A dosage of five billion colony forming units per day (5x10 9 CFU/day) has been advised for at least five days to provide appropriate health benefits. The microorganisms used in probiotic preparations should be generally recognized as safe (GRAS), resistant to bile, hydrochloric acid, and pancreatic juice, have anti-carcinogenic activity and stimulate the immune system, have reduced intestinal permeability, produce lactic acid, and be able to survive both acidic and alkaline conditions of the stomach and duodenum. Fermented milk, cheeses, fruit juices, wine, and sausages are examples of human foods that contain primarily lactic acid bacteria. Probiotics are made from single and mixed cultures of living microorganisms.
Table 2: Criteria of an ideal microbe as probiotic-
List of Probiotic Foods-
Good source of probiotics
It is one of the finest sources of probiotics since it is made from milk that has been fermented by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, both of which are friendly bacteria. It does contain calcium, which is good for bones.
It has high in probiotics, contains more protein and fewer carbohydrates and sugars than other forms of yogurt.
- It is prepared by fermenting skim milk and contains probiotic microorganisms that are comparable to those found in yogurt. It also has a low calorie and fat content while being high in protein and other minerals.
The sour, salty fermented cabbage is high in probiotics. It also has a lot of fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants, although it’s rich in salt.
Kimchi is a traditional Korean dietary staple created by fermenting vegetables, mainly cabbage, with probiotic lactic acid bacteria. It also helps lower cholesterol, increases cognitive health, and boosts immunity.
Tempeh is a popular meat alternative due to its high protein content. The fermented soybean product contains probiotics and is high in vitamin B12.
It is a Japanese cuisine staple made by fermenting soybeans with salt and koji, a type of fungus. The paste comes in a variety of flavors and is frequently used in miso soup. It’s also high in B vitamins, E vitamins, K vitamins, and folic acid.
Kombucha, a fermented beverage prepared from black or green tea, sugar, yeast, and bacteria, is touted for its health advantages, including improved digestion.
This fermented milk beverage contains a variety of beneficial bacteria and yeast types. It possesses antibacterial and anti-cancer effects and has been demonstrated to help digestion.
A lassi is a popular drink in India and Pakistan that is made with fermented yogurt and fruits such as mango and includes a lot of probiotics.
Source of probiotics benefitted for intestinal Microbiota
Probiotic therapy has already been used to treat a variety of illnesses, including infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and allergy disorders. There is a large range of possible applications for probiotics in a variety of these illnesses. However, before using probiotics on a regular basis, they must be thoroughly evaluated. Several critical quality and dependability requirements and standards must be satisfied. As a result, additional placebo-controlled trials with confirmed findings are necessary to determine the genuine health advantages of these products. The main issue is to carefully pick the probiotic agent, standardize its dose, and have a good understanding of its positive benefits in addition to its harmful consequences, so that this traditional medicine may be used as a successful instrument in medical therapy.