With a well developed economy, national highways, and state roads, the state of Haryana is rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, and tourism. Punjab and Himachal Pradesh border it to the north; Rajasthan to the west and south; and the Yamuna River forms its eastern boundary with Uttar Pradesh. 


Map of Haryana with main cities location

About Haryana 

Haryana is a northern Indian state that borders the national capital on three sides.The Yamuna River runs along the eastern boundary of Uttar Pradesh.Chandigarh, which is shared with Punjab, is recognised for its modernist architecture and gridlike street pattern developed by Swiss architect designers.The Zakir Hussain Rose Garden has 1,600 varieties of roses, while the Rock Garden has recycled-material sculptures. 

On November 1, 1996, it was created out of the previous state of East Punjab on linguistic grounds. It occupies less than 1.4% of India’s land area, placing it at 21st. The state capital is Chandigarh, which it shares with the neighbouring state of Punjab, while Faridabad, which is part of the National Capital Region, is the most populous city. Haryana is divided into 6 administrative divisions, 72 districts, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 7,356 villages, and 6,222 village panchayats.

Haryana encircles the country’s capital region of Delhi on three sides (north, west, and south); hence a considerable portion of the state is included in India’s economically significant National Capital Region for planning and development purposes. 


Haryana is hot in the summer (about 45 degrees Celsius) and pleasant in the winter. With an average rainfall of 354.5 mm, the climate is arid to semi-arid. The monsoon brings around 29% of the rain, while the Western Disturbance brings the rest. 


According to the poll, 13% of Haryana’s males and 7.8% of its females are non-vegetarian. Roti, saag, vegetarian Sabri, and milk products like ghee, milk, lassi, and kheer are all staples in the regional cuisine. 


Haryana has its traditional folk music, folk dances, saang (folk theatre), cinema, belief systems like Jathera (ancestor worship), and arts like Phulkari and shisha needlework. 

Janmashtami is an important religious day in Haryana because it is stated that Krishna (an incarnation of the god Vishnu) handed the Bhagavadgita (a section of the Mahabharata) to the warrior Arjuna on a battlefield in Kurukshetra.Festivals honouring other gods and saints, as well as cattle fairs conducted in various areas, are also important parts of the state’s cultural life.


This is the Hindu temple at Brahma Sarovar in Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. This is the land of the Hindu epic Mahabharata and the temple is located at the heart of the city

Haryana is home to several important pilgrimage sites.Hundreds of thousands of devotees from all over India flock to Kurukshetra for the solar eclipse bathing festival. Pehowa, in north central Haryana, is also a significant pilgrimage site. 


Haryana’s Hindus make up the vast bulk of the population. Sikhs and Muslims make up a small yet considerable minority, whereas Christians make up a minuscule minority.Sikhs are concentrated in the northeast and northwest of the state, whereas Muslims are concentrated in the southeastern districts bordering Delhi.Haryana’s agricultural economy is supported by Jats (peasant caste members).They are also well represented in India’s military.


 Cheerful Female Farmer Carrying drinking water pot made of mud & going through a wheat field, she is wearing Salwar Kameez which is traditional clothing for women in Haryana, India. There is a tractor in the background which is standing in wheat fieldThe Haryanvi people believe in an inclusive society that includes the “36 jatis,” or communities. The 36 jatis include castes such as Jat, Rajput, Gurjar, Saini, Pasi, Mev, Bishnoi, Harijan, Aggarwal, Brahmin, Ror, Ahirs, Khatri, and Tyagi. 

 Flora and Fauna 

In 2013, the state’s forest cover was 3.59 percent, while the state’s tree cover was 2.90 percent, for a total forest and tree cover of 6.49%. In 2016-17, 14.1 million seedlings were planted to cover 18,412 hectares of land. Throughout the state, thorny, dry deciduous woodland and prickly bushes can be found. Some of the trees found here are mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham, and babel. The black deer, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal, and wild dog are among the animals present in Haryana. There are over 450 bird species that can be seen here.


The Haryana Forest Department of the Haryana Government manages two national parks; eight wildlife sanctuaries; two wildlife conservation areas; four animal and bird breeding centres; one deer park; and three zoos. Sultanpur National Park is a well-known park in Gurugram’s Gurugram District.


Jungle Babbler sitting on the branch of a tree in Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Haryana, India


Haryana has historically been a zamindar community. Agriculture employs over 70% of Haryana’s population. The 1960s Haryana Green Revolution, combined with the completion of the Bhakra Dam in 1963 and the Western Yamuna Command Network canal system in the 1970s, resulted in greatly increased food grain output. As a result, Haryana is food self-sufficient and the second-largest contributor to India’s central food grain pool. Haryana produced 13,352,000 tonnes of wheat, 4,145,000 tonnes of rice, 7,169,000 tonnes of sugarcane, 993,000 tonnes of cotton, and 855,000 tonnes of oilseeds (mustard seed, sunflower, etc.) in 2015-2016. 

Simran jain 

25 May 2022

Tags: haryana

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