Mosquitoes are the most common animals responsible for spreading various types of diseases. There are more than 3000 species of mosquitoes living around us carrying deadly diseases. Some varieties do not carry or spread germs but are called nuisance mosquitoes for their disturbing activities around us. Whether it is indoors or outdoors these tiny creatures bite us which results in itchy skin.
These flying insects are common worldwide for their continuous sound coming from buzzing wings and pokey bites. Not only humans, but mosquitoes are irritant to animals as well.
The life cycle of the mosquito
Mosquitoes generally grow in humid climatic conditions. They lay eggs in water or moist soil. The egg becomes a larva which again takes the form of a pupa. From the pupa, the adult mosquito is born. Adult mosquitoes are covered with scales and have slender bodies. They have long legs, feathery antennae, and piercing mouthparts. The life of a mosquito varies between 2-4 weeks.
The female mosquitoes suck human blood as they have parts in their mouth for sucking blood and they also need protein for their eggs. They eat plant sugars or nectar found in plants for their survival.
Transfer of deadly diseases
Various types of diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes or are mosquito-borne diseases. Among the 3000 varieties, 3 types of species transmit human diseases. Anopheles is the species that transmit malaria, encephalitis, and filariasis. The resting position of Anopheles helps it to identify easily. Proboscis, head, and body stay in a line forming an upward angle with the resting surface.
There are also spots visible on Anopheles mosquitoes’ wings. Culex mosquito spreads filariasis, West Nile virus, and encephalitis. Culex’s resting position is parallel to the ground and they are uniformly colored with scales on the veins and margins. Dengue, yellow fever, and encephalitis are carried by Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes has posterior spiracular bristles with white markings and silver thorax.
The carrier of yellow fever A.aegypti has spotted thorax and abdomen with white bands on its legs. This mosquito can breed in any kind of container like flower vases, etc. The viruses or parasites are either transferred through mosquito saliva or a parasite attached to the mosquito’s body enters the host or human during contact.
The diseases transmitted or spread by mosquitoes cause a high amount of death every year globally.
Eradication and control
Mosquitoes need stagnant water or standing water to breed. One of the dangerous species of mosquitoes called Asian tiger mosquitoes easily breeds in clogged water of tree holes, buckets, potted plant trays, swamps, or even a small bottle cap. It is always advised to avoid water to stagnate or clean standing water resources.
Apart from maintaining a clean environment, the use of insecticides also kills and prevents the breeding of mosquitoes.
Nowadays, there are multiple varieties of mosquito repellents available in the market which helps to avoid insect bites and protect from infections. The creams or sprays applied on the body protect from mosquito bites and the liquid vaporizers used at home help prevent mosquitoes inside our home. The use of mosquito nets at night is also an effective method to protect and avoid mosquito bites.
Benefits of mosquito
Mosquitoes and their larvae are food for many animals, fish, and reptiles. They help pollinate plants which promote plant lifecycle. Although there were many proposals to find a way to eradicate mosquitoes, scientists are not sure about the impact it can create on our ecosystem. Many Biologists consider mosquitoes equally important as bees for helping in the process of pollination.
Mosquitoes have given rise to various deadly diseases and created health hazards for humans to date. There are various methods and steps taken to control the population of mosquitoes along with insecticides to destroy adult mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. Although complete eradication of mosquitoes looks difficult, we can use all possible methods to reduce and manage mosquito infestation.