The phylum of sponges -Erakina

Sponges or Poriferans resemble most animals in the context of cell wall absence, multicellular organisation of cells and heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Phylum Porifera: An overview Poriferans come under the kingdom Animalia and share basic characteristics with other animals. Poriferans, however, do not possess actual tissues or organs, they have a very basic cellular organisation.  …

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The Kurukshetra Panorama and Science Center

Kurukshetra panorama and science centre -Erakina

Kurukshetra Panorama and Science Centre is a one-of-a-kind facility that brings science and religion together. The Centre’s major attraction is a life-like panorama of the legendary battle of Kurukshetra, which depicts the Mahabharata conflict with scientific explanations for each occurrence. The Centre’s stunning two-story structure has cylindrical walls. It exhibits a wide range of science …

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Different types of fungi

Kingdom Fungi-Erakina

What Are Fungi? Fungi (singular: fungus) are eukaryotic organisms that belong to the kingdom of Fungi, in addition to animals, plants, monera, and protozoa. Fungi are diverse in nature, occurring in various forms, the most common forms being molds, yeast, mushrooms, and truffles. Fungi are mostly microscopic. They consist of thread-like structures with a diameter …

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Green colored rod-shaped structures attached to each other

Lactobacillus delbrueckii – Probiotic

Lactobacillus delbrueckii belonging to the Lactobacillus genre, functions as a probiotic bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract.   Lactobacillus species are known as good bacteria for their probiotic role in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. This genre is also found in genital areas, the urinary bladder, and other human body parts. The primary function …

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Green rod-shaped and spiked-spherical structures

The Kingdom Of Monera – Erakina

Introduction  The Kingdom Monera consists of prokaryotes that are unicellular microorganisms that are most abundantly found in the world. Monera is made up of prokaryotic bacteria that are single-celled microorganisms. Monera has been classified under various classification systems: the three-kingdom system (by Haeckel 1866), the four-kingdom system (by Copeland 1956), the five-kingdom system (by Whittaker …

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Beer brewing

Lactobacillus acetotolerans – Erakina

Lactobacillus acetotolerans is a bacterial species that was first isolated from white wine vinegar. The emerging importance of acid resistant bacteria Acid-resistant bacterial strains have begun to become widely used in industrial production due to their acid-resistance. Acid resistant bacteria have certain distinct characteristics and properties, such as- Development of protective mechanisms such as signal …

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Small green colored cylindrical structures

An Introduction to Bacterial Cell- Erakina

Bacteria is a single-celled microorganism found abundantly in the environment and capable of living in extreme conditions and inside the human body.  Bacteria are considered prokaryotic organisms as they contain only a single cell. However, the prokaryotic organism can be divided into bacteria and Archaea. The difference between bacteria and archaea is that bacteria’s cell …

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Colourful spheres with branches

Pattern Recognition Molecules (PRM/PRR)

Pattern recognition molecules (PRM) are protein molecules that can recognize different molecules to initiate relative responses.  Chemical structure of molecules Pattern recognition molecules (PRM) are also known as pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which recognize molecules from various sources to initiate interaction with these molecules. Molecules found in pathogens are called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In …

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