Basic Concepts of Protein and its Study-Erakina 

A human body is full of mysteries, many of the mysteries have been discovered but a lot of discoveries are still required to make. Let’s get thorough knowledge. 

What is Protein?

The term protein was first introduced by the Swedish Chemist Jons Jacob in 1938. He named protein to the class of macromolecules which are abundant in the human body. Protein is a large and highly complex substance that has great nutritional value and involve in the chemical processes crucial for life. The function, structure, and regulation of the tissue and organs are highly dependent on the protein. Protein is some kind of workforce of our body and which stimulates cells to perform various functions. 

Thousands of the smaller units, Amino acid which is attached together to form a long chain structure are called protein. These 20 different kinds of Amino acids combine together to form protein. The amino acids are coded by nucleotides(three DNA building blocks). The protein’s unique three-dimensional structure and function are determined by the sequence of amino acids. 

proteomics: structural formula of lysine

What does Proteomics mean?

it can be said to be the study of the proteome (a complete set of proteins in an organism) in which it is examined, how different proteins interact with each other, and what are the different roles they play in an organism. 

History of Proteomics

The first protein study began in 1975, with the introduction of mapping and two-dimensional gel of the proteins from m guinea pig, mouse, and bacteria Escherichia coli. 

The term “proteome” and “proteomics” were introduced in 1990 by Marc Wilkins in order to describe the words “genome” and “genomics” which represent the entire collection of genes within an organism. 

Today, it is used to explore a lot of study areas. They are; protein-protein interaction studies, protein localization studies, protein functions, and protein modifications. Proteomics not only helps in studying every single protein in the cell but also helps in creating the three-dimensional map of the cell showing their actual location. 

In many ways, it is similar to genomics. In genomics, the starting point is gene to make interferences about its product and in proteomics, the starting point is functionally modified protein and study the back of the gene that causes its production. 

Types of Proteomics

  • Structural Proteomics: The proteomic study whose main aim is on mapping out the specific proteins present in the cellular organelles or the structure of complexes protein. This, the study of structural analysis helps in identifying functions of newly discovered genes, shows where proteins interact with each other and drug binds to the protein. 
  • Expression Proteomics: The study of the protein expression between the samples which differ by a certain variable in a quantitative form. This type of study aid in identifying the main protein found in the specific sample and the proteins that are differently expressed in related samples. 
  • Functional proteomics: it helps in analyzing the study in a wide range for a specific, directed proteomic methodology. 

Some uses of Proteomics

  • Proteomics in medicine: it is still a little challenging in analyzing on a large scale because proteome is a very complex substance. 

The cancer biologists attempted to use proteomics for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. For the detection of ovarian cancer, serum-based proteomic pattern diagnostics will be discovered soon. Enhancement in the proteomic methods has allowed a more detailed analysis of molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases. It will help in finding the modified proteins and also the reason behind their modification. Proteomics is also starting to be used in the quality-control process in transfusion medicine to assure the safety and purity of various blood products. 

  • Proteomics in drug development: The disease process and treatments are clearly done at the protein level and that is the reason proteomics is gaining another level of attention in the world of science. The structure and function of protein change due to the application of any drug giving information about the mechanism of action. This is the world of scientific technologies in which nature is being explored using techniques and methods. Scientific technologies are expanding and spreading in every corner of the world providing great aid in various disease treatments.
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