alt text: Volcano;
Due to the high temperature and pressure the solid rock melts and flows like a gel-like fluid which makes a vent in the top of the mount and erupts like a molten rock. Volcanoes is a geographical formation.
There are four kinds of natural disasters present on Earth. they’re Geophysical, Hydrological, Climatological, and Meteorological. Volcanic eruptions come under the disaster named Geophysical. A Volcano may be a fissure that forms over the Earth’s crust to erupt lava and gas.
Most Volcanoes are found within the tectonic plate boundaries of the world. Tectonic plate boundaries are the areas where plates collide, separate, or slide from each other.
Earth has four layers crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. Magma is created within the Earth’s deep crust and mantle. The temperature and pressure are very high during this region which causes the formation of magma.
thanks to the warm temperature and pressure the solid rock melts and flows sort of a gel-like fluid which makes a vent within the top of the mount and erupts sort of molten rock.
The curve describes the freezing point of the rock. Point A denotes the Rock in the liquid state. The identical temperature and high Point B show the rock in the solid-state. With identical pressure and temperature point, C shows the rock in the solid state.
Volcanic eruption, an eruption of molten rock, hot rock fragments, and hot gases through a volcano, which is a vent in a planet’s or satellite’s crust. Volcanic eruptions can cause disastrous loss of life and property.
They range from relatively gentle eruptions, as typically seen in Hawaiian volcanoes, to massively destructive ones, such as the eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii in 79 CE. Volcanic eruptions have captured the imagination of people over millennia, and they feature in several mythologies as well as works of fiction.
These eruptions also play a role in climate change, with expelled gases such as carbon dioxide contributing to global warming, while ash, dust, and gases such as sulfur dioxide can drive global temperatures down.
How volcanoes erupt
Volcanic eruptions occur as a result of heat moving under Earth’s surface. They often begin with an accumulation of gas-rich magma (molten underground rock) in reservoirs near Earth’s surface, though they may be preceded by emissions of steam and gas from small vents in the ground.
Small earthquakes, which may be caused by a rising plug of dense, viscous magma oscillating against a sheath of more permeable magma, may also signal volcanic eruptions, especially explosive ones. In some cases, magma rises in conduits to the surface as a thin and fluid lava, either flowing out continuously or shooting straight up in glowing fountains or curtains.
The eruptions of Hawaii’s volcanoes fall into this category. In other cases, entrapped gases tear the magma into shreds and hurl viscous clots of lava into the air. In more violent eruptions, the magma conduit is hollowed out by an explosive blast, and solid fragments are ejected in a great cloud of ash-laden gas that rises tens of thousands of metres into the air.
An example of this phenomenon is the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens. Many explosive eruptions are accompanied by a pyroclastic flow, a fluidized mixture of hot gas and incandescent particles that sweeps down a volcano’s flanks, incinerating everything in its path. If the expelled ash or gases collect on a high snowfield or glacier, they may melt large quantities of ice, and the result can be a disastrous flood or landslide that rushes down a volcano’s slopes.
Major Volcanoes erupted from 1900 to the present:
Ø Martinique. Mt. Pelee, located on the northwest coast of the French island of Martinique, erupted a large volcano in recorded history within which the governor also died along with his family who came to reassure the population.
During this disaster around 30000 people were killed which happened in May,1902. The gas cloud formed from the eruption is around 300℃ to 400℃ which caused serious damage to the skin and lungs of many lives.
Ø Columbia. Mt. Nevado del Ruiz, which is about 129kms west of the Capital city, Bogota underwent serious volcanic eruptions in November 1985. Around 23 thousand people lost their lives during this disaster.
During the eruption, it emits a violent mixture of hot ash and lava into the atmosphere leading to several damages to nearby villages and therefore the city of Armero, where 70% of the town’s residents were destroyed without mercy.
This eruption resulted in a very huge amount of Lahars which destroyed all agricultural land, city, schools, homes, etc along its path. They tired 50 schools, hospitals, and over 5000 homes.
ALT TEXT: Molten rock erupts from the mountain.: .
Image Description: Lava running as a hot river jelly.
Ø Guatemala: Santa Maria discharge is the third largest within the 20th century, preceded by an excellent Earthquake also in October 1902. An 18-20 hour-long eruption on October 25 leads to pumice covering around a 1.2million square km with traces of Ash. This eruption is termed the Plinian eruption within which the emitted gas reaches above 25kms from the ocean level.
It killed above 6000 people surrounding the eruption. This impact was present around the world, and the ash was detected in the metropolis which was aloof from the realm. In Guatemala, another eruption in the year 1929 also occurred killing around 5000 people.
Ø Indonesia: In Indonesia, 3 major volcanic eruptions occurred within the years 1909, 1919, and 1963 killing around 6000, 5000, and 1600 people respectively. Indonesia has around 76 active volcanoes spread along with the Islands of Java, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda, and Celebes.
These eruptions cause heavy damage to the agricultural land and residents. Major volcanoes are stratovolcanoes in Indonesia and cause natural disasters like Earthquakes, landslides, etc.
Ø Papua Papua: Mt. Laminton may be a Stratovolcano located near the northern fringe of Papua New Guinea which was marked with discharge within the year 1951, resulting in 3000 people’s death. during this incident, an outsized number of bodies had split open spilling out intestines.
This caused some landslides and gas emissions leading to Earthquakes also. In June 2019 also there have been two separate volcanic eruptions occurred in Papua New Guinea.
Ø Cameroon: Lake Nyos disaster in august, 1986 marked a limnic eruption that killed around 1746 people and destroyed 3500 lives. Eruption ends up in a serious amount of Carbon-di-oxide gas release.
Lake itself turned murky brown because of the toxic gas emissions. many of us died during the night because the gas emitted was so large. The CO2 formed reached 300mts height and also the waves formed from the lake scoured over the vegetation within the agricultural land.
Ø St.Vincent and Grenada. In 1902, Soufriere Volcanoes erupted which emitted high ash into the atmosphere, and lahars were destroyed within the northern part of St.Vincent. It killed over 1565 people and demolished the sugar factory.
This eruption lasted till March 1903 which is the last burst. This small island experiences volcanic hazards followed by hurricanes that cause serious damage to its livelihoods.
Causes of Volcanic eruptions:
When volcanoes erupt they cause serious effects on the people and nature. They emit hot, dangerous gases, ash, lava, and rock magma which will cause natural disasters like floods, landslides, and when hot ash flows it ends up in wildfire also.
They also emit gases like carbon-di-oxide which ends up in warming. it should also cause acid precipitation which ends up in climatic changes and heavy damage to food and water resources.
Volcanic eruptions may cause serious damage to human health reckoning on the propinquity of the volcano. it’s going to cause suffocation, acute and chronic respiratory diseases, burns and injuries, eye and skin allergies and irritations, etc.
The ash falling above the building roof can cause damage to the buildings. The nearby areas of volcanic eruptions may lead to earthquakes and tsunamis. we should always consider the pollution which also results from volcanic eruptions.
Consistent to WHO (World Health Organization) over 6.4 billion people are affected and 2400 people died, due to Volcanic eruptions between the years 1998-2017. Around 1500 potentially active Volcanoes are present within the World.
ALT: Molten rock erupting due to high pressure.
Image Description: Fire coming out at the temperature above of1000͒͒͒͒℃
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